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पशु पालन

जैविक सुरक्षा (Biosecurity)

POSTED BY Dr. Arun Khanal

Apr 25, 2024
2 months, 2 weeks ago

h}ljs ;'/Iff (Bio-security)

h}ljs ;'/Iff (Bio-security)

kl/ro

at{dfg cj:yfdf kz'kfng If]qdf klg h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] dxTj lbg k|ltlbg al9/x]sf] kfp+5f}+ lsgls kz'kfng dflg;sf] nflu vfB a:t'l;t dfq geP/ k|ToIf /f]huf/Ll;t klg ;/f]sf/ ePsf] ljifo xf] . t;y{ h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] ljifonfO{ cnu /fv]/ kz'kfng If]qnfO{ cufl8 a9fpg] eGg] s'/fnfO{ sNkgf ;Dd klg ug{ ;lsGg . lbuf] kz'hGo pTkfbgdf h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] k|d'v e"ldsf /x]sf] 5 eg] h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] l;4fGt g} kz' :jf:Yosf] cfwf/ ePsf] 5 h;n] ubf{ o;sf] ;DaGw vfB ;'/Iff, h'gf]l6s /f]u -kz'af6 dflg;df ;g]{ /f]u_ sf] lgoGq0f / Jofkf/l;t uf+l;Psf] 5 .

kz'k+IfLkfngdf a9\bf] Joj;foLs/0f;+u} pGgt gZnsf a9L pTkfblzn kz'k+IfLdf pNn]Vo ?kdf nufgL klg a9\bf] 5 . pGgt gZnsf kz'k+IfLx? t'ngfTds ?kdf /f]ux? k|lt a9L ;Dj]bgl;n x'g] ePsf]n] Joj;flos kmfd{x?df h}ljs ;'/Iff ckgfpg Hofb} cfjZos b]lvG5 . ;fy} lgjf{xd'vL pTkfbg k|0ffnLdf jf ldl>t v]tL k|0ffnL ckgfO{ cfPsf cj:yfdf klg vf; u/L vfB :jR5tf tyf /f]usf] k|sf]k Go"g ug{ h}ljs ;'/Iffsf pkfox? k|efjsf/L l;4 ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . t;y{ h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ b'w, df;', km'n h:tf kz'hGo kbfy{sf] pTkfbg, cf];f/k;f/, k|zf]wg tyf pkef]usf x/]s r/0fdf cfj4 ug'{ ckl/xfo{ b]lvG5 .

kz'k+IfLx?df /f]usf] ;+qmd0f Go"g ug{, /f]u km}ngaf6 arfpg / /f]syfd tyf pkrf/df x'g] vr{ s6f}tL ug{ / cGttM :jR5 Pj+ :j:ys/ kz' hGo pTkfbgdf h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] cjnDag Ps clgjfo{ cfjZostf aGg k'u]sf] 5 .

h}ljs ;'/Iff eg]sf] s] xf] <

  • h}ljs ;'/Iff eg]sf] ;'/lIft hLjg xf] .
  • h}ljs ;'/Iff Ps k|s[of xf] h;n] hLjf0f'sf] ;+qmd0f tyf cfqmd0faf6 arfp+5 / of] k|s[of Ps 7fp+ jf :yfgdf dfq geP/ kmfd{, lhNnf, If]q tyf d'n'sel/ nfu' ug{ ;lsG5 .
  • h}ljs ;'/Iff Ps Joj:yfksLo k|s[of xf] / o;sf ;ts{tfsf pkfox?n] /f]ux? pTkGg x'g jf /f]usf] k|j]znfO{{ /f]Sg] sfo{ ub{5 .
  • h}ljs ;'/Iff h;n] kz'k+IfLsf /f]ux?nfO{ km}ngaf6 /f]Sb5 .
  • h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] cEof;n] /f]usf] /f]syfd, /f]unfO{ sd ug{ / kz'x? ljr x'g] /f]usf] k|j]z / km}nfj6nfO{ ;d]t /f]Sg] sfd ub{5 .

h}ljs ;'/Iff slxn] ckgfpg] <

h}ljs ;'/Iff /f]u km}lnPsf] ;dodf dfq ge}sg x/;dodf ckgfpg' kb{5 .

lgM;+qmd0f (Disinfection)

lgM;+qmd0f  (Disinfection) n]] h}ljs ;'/Iff sfo{df dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Nb5 . lgM;+qmd0f (Disinfection) eg]sf] /f]usf sf/s lhjf0f' tyf ljiff0f'x?nfO{ vf; /;fogx?sf] k|of]un] dfg]{ jf logLx?sf] a[l4nfO{ /f]Sg] sfo{ xf] . o; sfo{df k|of]u ul/g] /;fogx?nfO{ Disinfectants elgG5 .

s]xL k|rlnt lgM;+qmd0f /;fogx? –

-!_ clS;8fO{lh+u Ph]06x? -xfO{8<f]hg k]/f]S;fO{8 / le/sg_ .

-@_ cnsf]xnx? -O{yfgf]n_ .

-#_ x]nf]h]gx? -;f]l8od xfO{kf]Snf]/fO{6, n'uf w'g] ;f]8f_ .

/f]u d'lQms/0f (Decontamination)

/f]u d'lQms/0f eg]sf] ;/;kmfO{ jf lgM;+qmd0fsf] dfWodaf6 /f]usf] sf/s lhjf0f', ljiff0f'nfO{ d'Qm ug]{ jf gsf/fTds c;/ ug]{ /;fogx?sf] k|efjnfO{ z"Go ug]{ xf] . t;y{ /f]u d'lQms/0fn] h}ljs ;'/Iff / lgM;+qmd0fdf ulx/f] ;DaGw /fVb5 .

h}ljs ;'/Iff ckgfPdf s] x'G5 <

  • dgnfO{ zfGtL ldNg] .
  • kz'k+IfLsf] ;'/Iff x'g] .
  • Joj;fo kmi6fpg] .
  • pBf]usf] pGgtL x'g] .
  • ;d'bfosf] pGgtL x'g] .

 

c;n tyf plrt h}ljs ;'/Iffaf6 k|fKt x'g] kmfO{bfx?

  • /f]usf] vt/faf6 d'Qm u/fp+5 .
  • hg:jf:Yo ;DalGw /f]ux?df sdL cfp+5 .
  • /f]unfO{ pTkGg x'g / km}ngdf l;ldt ul/ /f]ux?af6 arfp+5 .
  • w]/}} kz'k+IfLsf] :jf:Yodf ;'wf/ Nofp+5 .
  • /f]usf] /f]syfd / pkrf/df x'g] vr{nfO{ sdL u/fO{ cfodf a[l4 u/fp+5 .
  • kmfd{sf] pTkfbg Ifdtfdf a[l4 Nofp+5 .

 

/f]u km}lng ;Sg] sf/0fx?

  • dflg; tyf kz'x?sf] :yfg kl/jt{g tyf cfjfudg (Movement) sf] sf/0fn] .
  • kz'k+IfL kmfd{ cjnf]sg ug{ cfpg] dflg; / ;jf/L ;fwg tyf 9'jfgLsf] k|of]hgsf uf8Lx? .
  • kmfd{df, uf]7 tyf vf]/df k|j]z u/fO{Psf gof+ kz'k+IfLx? .
  • l5/l5d]ssf kz'x?l;tsf] ;Dks{ .
  • kmfd{df Ps cfk;df k|of]u ul/Psf ;fdu|Lx? .
  • h+unL hgfj/ / h+unL k+IfLx?sf] ;+;u{df cfPsf] jf ltglx?af6 n;k; e} b'lift ePsf] ;fdu|Lx? .
  • kz'k+IfL]n] b'lift gbLgfnfsf] kfgL vfPdf jf k|of]u u/]df .

 

/f]u km}lng glbg ul/g] pkfox?

  • h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] cfjZostf tyf dxTj af/] ;r]t x'g] .
  • sk8f, h'Qf jf xftaf6 kmfd{÷uf]7÷vf]/ ;+qmd0f x'g ;Sg] jf /f]u km}lng ;Sg] x'+bf sk8f, h'Qf abNg] / o;sf] ;/;kmfO{ k|lt Wofg lbg] .
  • ;s];Dd kmfd{÷uf]7÷vf]/ cjnf]sg ug{ cfpg] dflg; tyf cGo uf8Lx?nfO{ l;ldt ug]{ . uf]7, vf]/ eGbf 6f9} uf8Lx? kfls{Ësf] Joj:yf ug]{ cfjZostfg';f/ lgoGq0f ug]{ .
  • kmfd{÷uf]7÷vf]/;Dd hfg] af6f], uf8L /fVg] 7fp+, bfgfkfgL vfg] 7fp++, 3f+; bfgf /fVg] 7fp+ / ;f] If]qnfO{ /fd|/L ;kmf ug]{ .
  • kz'k+IfLx?nfO{ l5d]sLsf] kz'k+IfLl;t ;Dks{df cfpg glbg] o;sf] nflu aw'jfkfng jf uf]7÷vf]/df g} /fVg] .
  • cf}iflw pkrf/df k|of]u x'g] ;fdu|Lx? -cf}iflw ;'O{ nufpg] / cf}iflw v'jfpg]_ sf] a]Unfa]Un]} k|of]u ug]{ .
  • kmfd{÷uf]7÷vf]/ ;kmf ug]{ ;fdu|Lx? l5d]sLl;t jf+8r'+8 ul/ rnfPsf] eP /fd|/L lgM;+qmd0f ul/ dfq k|of]u ug]{ .
  • ;kmf lkpg] kfgLsf] dfq k|of]u ug]{ .
  • kz'a:t'sf] cfnf] dn 5/]sf] ePdf sl/a ^ xKtf;Dd kz'k+IfLnfO{ To;sf] ;Dks{af6 6f9} /fVg] .
  • kz'a:t'sf] klxrfg ug]{ / clen]v /fVg] k|0ffnLnfO{ r':t / b'?:t /fVg] .
  • kmfd{÷uf]7÷vf]/df s'g} kz'k+IfL lj/fdL eP jf ePsf] z+sf nfu]df l9nf] gul/sg To;nfO{ cnu /flv k|fljlwsnfO{ va/ ug]{ .
  • d/]sf] kz'k+IfLx?nfO{ ulx/f] vfN8f] vgL k'g]{ jf hnfpg] jf l8:kf]hn lk6df xfnL /fd|/L tx nufpg] .

 

kz' pTkfbg k|0ffnLdf h}ljs ;'/Iffsf dxTjk"0f{ pkfox?

!= kz'k+IfLl;t k|ToIf ;Dks{df /x]/ sfd ubf{ Wofg lbg' kg]{ s'/fx? –

  • dflg;x?sf] cfjt hfjt / uf8L nufotsf cGo ;fwg ;fdfu|Lx?nfO{ kz'k+IfL /flvPsf] 7fp+, If]q, uf]7, vf]/, kz' ahf/ tyf kz' /flvg] :yfgx?df ;s];Dd sd ug{' kb{5 h;n] ubf{ dflg;, uf8L tyf cGo ljleGg cf}hf/ / ;fdu|Lx?af6 -3f+;, bfgf, k/fn, b'w, c08f, dn nufotsf cGo kbfy{ cflb af]Sg] uf8f, uf8L h;n] /f]usf hLjf0f'x? klg af]Sg ;Sb5g_ b'lift x'g ;Sg] ;+efjgf sd x'G5 .
  • kz'k+IfLl;t k|ToIf ;Dks{ e} /xg] cj:yfdf nufO{g] sk8f, h'Qf, uda'6, k|of]u ul/g] jf ul/Psf] ;fdu|L, uf8L cflbnfO{ ;Dks{df cfpg' cuf8L / ;Dks{df cfO{ ;s] kl5 /fd|/L ;kmf / lgM;qmd0f ug'{ kb{5 .

 

Pp6f h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] pkfon] ;a} /f]ux?sf] /f]syfdsf] pQ/ lbb}g t;y{ /f]usf] /f]syfdsf] pkfox?sf] nflu PsLs[t sfo{qmdsf] cfjZos x'G5 . o;sf] nflu Ps s[ifssf] kmfd{df lgDg s'/fx?df Wofg lbg ;lsG5

  • cfkm'n] kfn]sf kz'x?sf] af/]df ;a} ljj/0f v'Ng] u/L clen]v /fVg] -kflnPsf] ;a} kz'k+IfLsf] ljj/0f÷clen]v b'?:t /fVg]_ h'g clen]vn] ;a} kz'x?sf] ljj/0f lbG5 .
  • kz' ayfg z'? ubf{ /fd|f] / :j:y kz'af6 z'? ug]{ .
  • ;+ej eP;Dd aw'jf u/L jf aGb k4lt (Closed system) ckgfpg] h;n] ubf{ 5f8f ?kdf kflnPsf] cGo kz'x?sf] ;Dks{df cfpg] ;+efjgf x'+b}g .
  • vfB :jR5tfsf] b[lisf]0faf6 ;'/lIft kz' cf}iflwsf] k|of]u ug{ kz' lrlsT;s tyf cg'ejL k|fljlwssf] ;Nnfx / l;kmf/L;df dfq cfjZostfg';f/ cf}iflwsf] k|of]u ug]{ cGoyf w]/} k|of]u ePsf] cj:yfdf kz'hGo kbfy{sf] dfWodaf6 hg:jf:Yodf c;/ kg{ ;S5 .
  • /fd|f] ;/;kmfO{sf] cEof; u/L kmfd{÷If]qnfO{ ;kmf /fVg] .
  • ayfgsf ;a} kz'k+IfLx?sf] nflu cfjZos uf]7÷vf]/ / 7fp+sf] /fd|f] Joj:yf ldnfpg] .
  • kz'k+IfLx?df bjfj / tgfj jf ;s; sd ug]{ .
  • k|z:t dfqfdf cfxf/f v'jfpg] / cfxf/f v'jfp+bf ljleGg df};d cg';f/ ;Gt'lnt cfxf/fsf] Joj:yf ug]{ .
  • ayfgnfO{ uf]7 tyf vf]/af6 x6fO{ ;s] kl5 klg To; 7fp+df /f]u pTkGg ug{ ;Sg] hLjf0f'x? /lx /xg] x'+bf h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] ljlw ckgfP/ dfq k'Mg k|of]u ug]{ .

 

kz'x?df gof+ /f]u lelqg glbg s] s] ug{ ;lsG5 <

  • gof+ kz' v/Lb ul/Psf] eP To;fnO{ slDtdf klg @ xKtf;Dd ayfgl;t gld;fO{ a]Un} /fVg] h;n] ubf{ ;f] kz'df s'g} /f]u nflu ;s]sf] eP yfxf kfpg ;lsG5 .
  • olb kz'nfO{ s'g} k|bz{gLdf nu]/ NofPsf] ePdf To;nfO{ ayfgdf gld;fO{sg a]Un} 7fp+df /fVg] olb of] ;+ej gePdf slDtdf klg 5'§} s'gfdf /fVg] .
  • olb kz'x? cGo kz'x?l;t ;Dks{df cfPsf] eP jf cGo s'g} aflx/sf] kz' kmfd{ tyf uf]7, vf]/df k|of]u x'g] ef+8fs'+8f tyf cf}hf/x?l;t ;Dks{df cfPsf] cj:yfdf To:tf] kz'x?nfO{ klg sl/a @ xKtf;Dd lgu/fgLdf /flv /f]usf] l:ylt cWoog ug'{ kb{5 .
  • kmfd{, uf]7 vf]/df k|of]u x'g] /f}+ emfg]{ a|';, bfgfkfgL lbg] ef+8fjt{g cflb ;femf ?kdf c?l;t k|of]u ug'{ x'+b}g lsgls o;af6 5fnf / :jf;k|Zjf; ;DalGw /f]u nfUg] al9 ;+efjgf x'G5 . olb c?l;t dfu]/ NofO{ sfd rnfpg' kg]{ ePdf k|of]u ug'{ cufl8 /fd|/L ;kmf / lgM;+qmd0f u/]/ dfq k|of]u ug]{ / k|of]u ul/ ;s] kl5 klg /fd|/L ;kmf / lgM;+qmd0f u/L dfq lkmtf{ lbg] .
  • kz' d]nf, kmfd{, uf]7, vf]/sf] cjnf]sg ug{ cfpg]x?nfO{ kz' 5'g] tyf kz'nfO{ s]lx v'jfpg] h:tf sfo{nfO{ xtf]T;fx ug]{ lsgls dflg;sf] dfWodaf6 Ps kz'af6 csf]{ kz'df, Ps hgfj/ b]lv csf]{ hgfj/df hfg] ePsf]n] /f]u pTkGg ug]{ hLjf0f' klg ;fy} km}ng] df}sf kfpg ;Sg] x'''''G5 . 7'nf kmfd{df o:tf] cj:yfdf s[kof kz'nfO{ g5'g' xf]nf ;fy} s]lx klg gv'jfpg' xf]nf eGg] n]lvPsf] ;fO{gaf]8{ klg /fVg ;lsG5 jf cfuGt'sx?nfO{ clu|d hfgsf/L u/fpg] .
  • JolQmut ;/;kmfO{df /fd|/L Wofg lbg' kb{5 lsgls kz'k+IfLx? hg:jf:Yodf c;/ ug]{ /f]ux?sf] >f]t klg x'g ;S5g\ . ;fy} dflg;x? klg kz'x? jLr /f]u ;fg]{ dfWod aGg ;S5g\ . o;sf/0f kmfd{df kz'sf] ;Dks{df cfpg' cufl8 xftnfO{ ;kmf kfgL / ;fa'gn] wf]P/ ;kmf n'uf, h'Qf÷uda'6 cflb nufpg] / kz'sf] ;]jf ubf{ nufO{Psf n'uf, h'Qf÷ uda'6 h:tf ;fdu|Lx?nfO{ sfd ;lsP kl5 /fd|/L ;kmf / lgM;+qmd0f u/]/ /fVg] .
  • Joj;flos 7"nf kmfd{ cjnf]sgsf] l;nl;nfdf cfpg] cfuGt'sx?nfO{ ;+ej eP;Dd kmfd{af6 tof/ kfl/Psf] n'uf, h'Qf cflb pknJw u/fpg pko'Qm x'G5 .
  • kz' 9'jfgL ug]{ uf8L, sfdsf] nflu k|of]u x'g] uf8f, hf]Tg] xnf] h:tf ;fdu|Lx?nfO{ k|of]udf Nofpg' cufl8 lg;+qmd0f ug'{ kb{5 .

 

s'v'/fkfngdf h}ljs ;'/Iff Joj:yf

s'v'/fkfngdf h}ljs ;'/Iff ug'{ eg]sf] /f]usf] sf/s tTjx?nfO{ k+IfLaf6 / k+IfLnfO{ /f]usf] sf/s tTjaf6 6f9f /fVg] Joj:yf a'emfp+5 . k+IfLnfO{ /f]uJofwLaf6 hf]ufpg] / lgoGq0f ug]{ ;DaGwdf pknJw k|ljlwx?df h}ljs ;'/Iff g} ;a]}eGbf ;:tf] / e/kbf]{ pkfo 7xl/Psf] 5 . k+IfL Joo;fosf] ;kmntf g} cfkm\gf] k+IfLsf] :jf:Yo ;'/Iffdf lge{/ ub{5 .

ctM k+IfLsf] a8{ km\n', /fgLv]t h:tf l;dfljlxg /f]u b]lv lnP/ cGo dxfdf/L nufotsf ljleGg ?kdf km}lng] /f]ux?nfO{ ;d]t cfkm\gf] kmfd{df k|j]z ug{ / ;+qmd0f ug{df /f]s nufpg cjnDag ul/g] h}ljs ;'/Iffsf r/0fa4 pkfox? lgDgfg';f/ ckgfO{G5 .

h}ljs ;'/Iffsf k|d'v ltg c+ux?nfO{ b]xfo cg'?k 5'§f 5'§} a0f{g ul/Psf] 5 –

 

!= k+IfLnfO{ cnu ug]{

   cfkm\gf] k+IfLnfO{ cGo kz'k+IfL tyf /f]usf hLjf0f' jf ljiff0f'sf] ;+;u{af6 6f9f cnUofP/ /fVg' kb{5 . o;f] ubf{ /f]u pTkGg ug{ z'Id hLjx? / /f]usf ;Djfxsx/sf] ;+;u{af6 cfkm\gf k+IfLx? cnu /fVg ;lsg] / k+IfLsf] ;d'xdf /f]u k|j]z ug{ g;Sg] ePsf]n] k+IfLx? ;'/lIft /xg ;Sb5g\ . /f]usf] hLjf0f' af]s]/ lx+8\g] dflg;, kz'k+IfL, h+unL hgfj/,  uf8L, r/f, d';f h:tf /f]usf] ;Dafxs / sf/s tTjx?nfO{ cfkm\gf] k+IfL kmfd{df k|j]z x'gaf6 /f]s nufpg] / cgfjZos ?kdf cGo kz'k+IfLsf] ;+;u{df cfkm\gf k+IfLnfO{ g/fVg] jftfj/0f ;[hgf ug'{ kb{5 . o;sf] nflu lgDgfg';f/ ug{' kb{5 –

  • kmfd{df k+IfL /fVbf vf]/df hfnL nufpg] / ahf/df /fVbf ;'/lIft vf]/df /fVg] .
  • s'v'/fkfng ubf{ Ps} k6s s'v'/f leq\ofpg] / Ps} k6s aflx¥ofpg] u/L Ps} k6s cGTo ug]{ All in all out l;4fGtdf cfwfl/t Joj:yfkg k|0ffnL ckgfpg] . o;af6 k'/} kmfd{ Ps}k6s lgM;+qmd0f ug{ ;xh x'G5 .

@= k+IfL kmfd{ leq / kmfd{ aflx/ x'g] dflg;, r/fr'?ËL, bfgf, c08f, uf8L tyf ;/;fdu|Lx?sf] cgfjZos cfjthfjt tyf cfjfudgdf lgoGq0f u/L /f]usf] k|j]zdf /f]s nufpg' kb{5 .

   o;sf] nflu lgDgfg';f/ ug{ ;lsG5 –

  • cgflws[t JolQmnfO{ kmfd{ kl/;/ leq k:g /f]s nufpg] .
  • kmfd{sf] sfddf k|of]u gul/g] ;a} uf8Lx?nfO{ kmfd{sf] k|j]z u]6df g} /f]Sg nufpg] .
  • sfd ug]{ a]nfdf klxn] lg/f]uL / To; kl5 /f]uL clg klxn] rNnf / kl5 dfpsf] x]/rfxsf] sfo{ ug'[{ kb{5 .
  • k+IfLsf Jofkf/Lx?nfO{ kmfd{ leq k:g glbg] .
  • s'v/fsf] vf]/ jf 5'§f 5'§} sf]7fsf nflu 5'§} leq k:bf nufpg]  h'Qf /fVg] .
  • km'6 jfysf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] .
  • k+IfL ahf/df Ps tkm{af6 k:g] / csf]{ tkm{af6 lg:sg] Joj:yf ldnfpg' kb{5 .
  • k+IfL ahf/df ljqmLsf] nflu nluPsf] k+IfL k'Mg kmfd{df lkmtf{ gNofpg] . o;sf] nflu k+IfL ahf/ lgdf{0f ubf{sf] cj:yfdf g} Wofg k'¥ofpg] .
  • ahf/df k;]sf] dflg; Ps tkm{af6 k;] kl5 csf]{ tkm{af6 dfq lg:sg ldNg] ul/ k+IfL ahf/ lgdf{0f ug]{ .
  • kmfd{af6 k+IfL cf];f/k;f/ ug]{ uf8LnfO{ nf]8 cgnf]8 ug{ pko'Qm :yfg lgdf{0f ug]{ . Ps 7fp+af6 dfq nf]8cgnf]8 ugf{n] To:tf] kl/j]zsf] ;/;kmfO{ tyf lgM;+qmd0f ug{ ;xh x'g] ub{5 .

#= ;/;kmfO{

lgoldt ?kdf k+IfLsf] vf]/, k|of]u x'g] bfgfkfgLsf] ef+8fjt{g, uf8L tyf sfdbf/ ;d]tsf] ;/;kmfO{ / lgM;+qmd0fdf /fd|/L Wofg lbgfn] /f]u pTkGg ug]{ z'Id hLjx?sf] kmfd{df k|j]z x'g kfp+b}g . k+IfL Joj;fol;t ;DalGwt vf]/, kmfd{df k|of]u x'g] ;fdu|Lx?, uf8Lsf ;fy} dflg;n] ;d]t tn lbP cg';f/ ;/;kmfO{ / lgM;+qmd0fsf] ljlw ckgfpg' kb{5 –

  • s'v'/fsf] kmfd{df sfd ug]{ sfdbf/x?n] sfd ;lsP kl5 xftuf]8f /fd|/L ;kmf ug]{ clg n'uf / h'Qf km]g'{ kb{5 . o;/L /fd|/L ;/;kmfO{ gul/sg csf{] kmfd{df k:g' klg x'+b}g .
  • kmfd{df k|of]u ePsf ljleGg ;fdu|Lx? -bfgfkfgL vfg] ef+8f, cf}hf/ tyf pks/0f cflb_ nfO{ lgoldt ?kdf ;/;kmfO{ / lgM;+qmd0f ug]{ .
  • kmfd{df /fd|f] 9nsf] Joj:yf ug]{ .
  • k|of]u ePsf] ;f]Q/nfO{ ;+w} ;'Vvf /fVg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] .
  • kmfd{af6 lg:s]sf] kfgL km]/L k|of]u ug'{ x'+b}g .
  • s'v'/f kmfd{ jl/kl/sf] If]qdf ls/fkm6]+u|f, r/f, d';f nufotsf hLj÷k]i6 lgoGq0f sfo{ ug]{ .
  • h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] k"jf{wf/ eg]sf] c;n Joj:yfkg k4lt cg';f/ k+IfLkfng ug'{ xf] eGg] s'/fnfO{ s'v'/fkfnsn] hlxn] klg dgg ug'{ kb{5 .

 

k+IfLx? ahf/df 9'jfgL ubf{ Wofg lbg' kg]{ h}ljs ;'/Iffsf pkfox?

  • h}ljs ;'/Iffsf ljlwx? /fd|/L kfng ug]{ ljZjfl;nf] pTkfbsx?af6 dfq :j:y k+IfLx? v/Lb ul/ 9'jfgL ug'{ kb{5 .
  • /f]usf nIf0f b]vfO{ /x]sf jf /f]u nfu]sf] z+sf nfu]df To:tf k+IfLx? ljqmL ljt/0fsf] nfuL vl/b ug'{ x'+b}g .
  • Ps} k6sdf jf Ps} lbgdf w]/} kmfd{af6 k+IfL ;+sng gug]{ .
  • k+IfL l8n/ / k+IfL 9'jfgL ug{] 6f]s/LnfO{ slxNo} klg kmfd{ leq Nofpg glbg] . k+IfLsf] sf/f]af/ kmfd{ aflx/ g} ug'{ kb{5 .
  • sfdbf/ jfx]s cGo JolQm k+IfL ;+sng ug{ vf]/ leq l5g'{ x'+b}g / k+IfLnfO{ kfng u/]sf] kmfd{ eGbf s]xL 6f9f lglZrt :yfgdf ;+sng ug'{ kb{5 .
  • k+IfL 9'jfgL ug]{ ;fwgdf dflg; af]Sg' x'+b}g ;fy} cGo kz'k+IfLl;t ld;fP/ 9'jfgL ug{ klg x'+b}g .
  • k+IfL /f]u km}lnPsf] ;dodf /f]unfO{ yk km}ng glbg k+IfLsf] cfjt hfjtdf nufO{Psf] /f]ssf] kfngf ;b}j ug'{ kb{5 .
  • 9'jfgLdf k|of]u ul/g] Knfli6s tyf wft'sf] ;fdu|Lx? ;lhn} ;kmf ug{ ;lsg] vfnsf] x'g' kb{5 eg] :yflgo:t/df af+; tyf 8f]/Laf6 ag]sf 6f]s/L cflbnfO{ abNg] jf sfd gnfUg] jf k'/fgf] eP kl5 89fP/ gi6 ug'{ kb{5 .
  • k+IfL 9'jfgLdf k|of]u ePsf uf8f, df]6/;fO{sn, lksck, hLk, 6<s cflbnfO{ 9'jfgL sfo{ ;dfKt eP kl5 /fd|/L ;kmf / lgM;+qmd0f ug'{ kb{5 .

 

k+IfL ljqm]tfx?n] Wofg lbg' kg]{ h}ljs ;'/Iffsf ljlwx?

ahf/ Joj:yfkgn] k|efjsf/L h}ljs ;'/Iffsf pkfox? cjnDag ug{ cfjZos k"jf{wf/x? tyf ;'ljwfx? pknJw u/fP klg cGttf]uTjf :j:y Pj+ :jR5 pTkfbgsf]  nflu b}lgs ?kdf ;/;kmfO{ ug]{ lhDdf k+IfL ljqm]tfx?sf] g} x'g] ePsf]n] ljqm]tfx?n] lgDgfg';f/ h}ljs ;'/Iff ljlw ckgfpg' cfjZos b]lvPsf] 5 –

 h}ljs ;'/Iffsf] ljlw ckgfO{ e/kbf]{ >f]taf6 dfq k+IfL v/Lb ul/ :j:y / u'0f:/Lo k+IfLx?sf] Joj;fo ;+rfng ug'{ kb{5 .

  • Pp6} vf]/ jf lk+h8f jf 6f]s/Ldf ljleGg pd]/ / hftsf] k+IfL jf dgf]/+hgsf] nflu kflnPsf k+IfLx? -;'uf, d}gf, sflnh h:tf_ ld;fpg' x'+b}g .
  • ;s];Dd Pp6} >f]taf6 dfq k+IfL v/Lb ug'{ kb{5 .
  • ljqmL ljt/0f ug]{ lglZrt lbgdf gof+ k+IfLx? gleqfpg] .
  • ljqmL gePsf k+IfLx?nfO{ h'g kmfd{af6 nu]sf] xf] ;f]lx kmfd{df lkmtf{ Nofpg' x'+b}g / o:tf k+IfLx?nfO{ jw ug'{ kb{5 .
  • cfkm'l;t ePsf] k+IfLx? lj/fdL eP gePsf] ;b}j rgfvf] eP/ lgu/fgL /fVg' kb{5 olb lj/fdL ePsf] z+sf nfu]df :j:yx?af6 cnu u/L a]Un]} vf]/ jf 6f]s/Ldf /fVg' kb{5 .
  • ljqm]tfn] ahf/df ljqmLsf] nflu NofPsf] k+IfLsf] ;xL tYof+s /fVg' kb{5 .
  • cfkm'n] NofPsf] k+IfLx? c;fdfGo tl/sfn] lj/fdL eP jf dg{ nfu]df t'?Gt} ;DalGwt lgsfox?df -kz' ;]jf s]Gb|, lhNnf kz' ;]jf sfof{no, uf=lj=;=_ oyf;So rf8f] va/ ug'{ kb{5 .

 

kz'k+IfL xf6ahf/df h}ljs ;'/Iff ljlw

g]kfndf kz'k+IfL a]rljvgdf xf6ahf/sf] e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ /x]sf] 5 .  t/ w]/} lt/sf kz'x? xf6ahf/df NofO{g] ePsf] / kz'x? ps cfk;df ;Dks{df cfpg], Jofkf/lx? df]ndf]nfO{ ubf{, kz'x?nfO{ 5'+bf /f]u ;+qmd0fsf] ;+efjgf cTolws /xG5 . ctM b]xfosf h}ljs ;'/Iffsf pkfox? pkof]uL x'g] b]lvG5 —

  • xf6ahf/df lj/fdL jf z+sf:kb lj/fdL kz'nfO{ cnUu} /fVg] / pkrf/ ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg] .
  • kz' 9'jfgLdf k|of]u x'g] ;jf/L ;fwgsf] ;/;kmfO{ / lgM;+qmd0f k|To]s k6ssf] kz' 9'jfgL kZrft /fd|f];+u ug]{ .
  • xf6df ljqmLsf] nflu NofO{Psf kz'nfO{ ;se/ k'gM lkmtf{ gn}hfg] t/ n}hfg' k/]sf] cj:yfdf jf xf6ahf/af6 vl/b u/]/ 3/ n}hfg' k/sf] cj:yfdf uf]7df kflnPsf c? kz'x?;+u gld;fO{ sl/a @ xKtf;Dd cnUu} /fVg] .
  • xf6ahf/sf] dnd'q nufotsf kmf]xf]/ lgisf;g plrt lsldn] ug]{ .
  • ahf/ nfUg] :yfg j/k/ ;+qmfds /f]u km}lnPsf] cj:ydf xf6ahf/df /f]uL kz' gNofpg k|rf/ k|;f/ ug]{ . ;+ej ePdf s]lx ;do -/f]u ;fDo geP;Dd ahf/ aGb ug'{ kg]{ x'G5_ .
  • xf6ahf/sf] dfWodaf6 kz'k+IfLx?sf] /f]u km}lng ;Sg] af/] Jofkf/L, s[ifsx?, 9'jfgLstf{, ;jf/L rfns, x]Nk/nfO{ ;d]t ;r]t u/fpg] .

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माछामा लाग्ने एक घातक protozoan रोग ICHTHYOPHTHIRIUS MULTIFILIIS (White Spot Infection in Fish) बारे जानकारी ...............

माछामा लाग्ने एक घातक protozoan रोग ICHTHYOPHTHIRIUS MULTIFILIIS (White Spot Infection in Fish) जसको संक्रमण ले गर्दछ माछा हरु सखाप आउनुहोस रोगको बारेमा सम्पूर्ण जानकारी